There are currently no WHO guidelines on the indications for semen culture; however, semen
cultures are performed in the evaluation of male infertility and the assisted reproductive technology (ART)
process. The relevance and significance of positive semen cultures is widely debated in the literature, with
no current consensus on the usefulness of this test in relation to male infertility. We review the pathogenic
mechanisms of potentially pathogenic bacteria, general bacteria, urethral flora, and skin flora on sperm
We also present, possible routes of semen contamination, measures to reduce contamination,
and the clinical significance of culture contamination. First, it is critical to distinguish round cells in semen as leukocytes from immature germ cells. Second, it is critical to distinguish leukocytospermia from infected semen
in order to guide management.